I am pregnant and worried about getting vaccinated. Why none of the clinical trials for covid vaccines included pregnant women?

Question: I am pregnant and worried about getting vaccinated. Why none of the clinical trials for covid vaccines included pregnant women?

Answer: We are presently at phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials and these usually don’t include pregnant women and vulnerable people.

As phase 3 trials are carried and results presented we’ll get more info.


Dr. John Claude


I had a feeling on the left of my Adam’s apple as if someone was placing their thumb on it.

Question: I am a 51 year old male. I have had heart burn from July 2018. Then July 2019 the acid went to my throat and just sits there. Even if i clear it it still sits there. From December 2020 i had a feeling on the left of my Adam’s apple as if someone was placing their thumb on it. Not with pressure but just placing it on my throat. But also at the same time December 2020 my throat became very itchy and dry. Then 28th of April i got a burning sensation in the exact same spot. Left of my Adam’s apple. I would not say it was painful but very uncomfortable and very conscious of it. Also my heart burn did clear from when i first got it in July 2018. Can’t remember when but it has come back and it seems higher up like just below my neck not my chest. Also from December 2020 along with my other symptoms i would say i had a voluntary cough. It is actually when i eat or drink that it makes me feel the urge to cough. I think also my burning pain i have now fluctuates to just a burning that i can feel to something bordering on quite painful. I think thats all and i dont think i have missed anything out.

Answer: Hello. Thanks for your question. Looks like you had (and still have) a serious GERD –
Gastroesophageal Reflux – problem. The pressure you describe in your throat -feeling of pressure or what some patients descibe as a lump like sensation is probably caused by LPR (Laryngopharyngeal reflux disease) – a result of your history and battle with acid reflux. As a result of acid reflux in your throat, your body is reacting through excess mucus and inflammation. In my opinion you need to get your acid reflux problem under control. First: Watch your diet – cut out coffee, acidic drinks, spice, fats, alcohol. Eat small meals. Don’t lie horizontal after your eat. 2. Other treatments you can use involves the use of antiacids, H-2-receptor blockers, proton pump inhibitors. If problem persists or worsens, you may also want to consult an ENT/Gastroenterologist for prescription strength medications as well as possible x-ray, acid (pH) probe test and upper endoscopy.

Let us know how it goes.

Dr. D. Zluf
Dr. D. Zluf

I have pain not only in my hand but from my leg up to my neck.

Question: Hello. I am a 39 year old. Male. I do some activities like dancing and recently I think I pulled a muscle or maybe twisted a nerve in my arm and right hand while dancing. But the result was pain not only in my hand but from my leg up to my neck. Pain is precisely in neck, shoulder, arm and hand.  And I am quite worried about this. A week ago I  had an MRI scan taken and I would like to have an opinion from you, I guess  a second opinion. I uploaded the results. Please provide best possible answer. Thanking you in advance.

Answer: Hi. Thanks for contacting QuestionDoctors.com. Based on the information you have provided and uploaded, I can see your MRI indicates:

  1. Disc bulge indenting the theca at c4/c5
  2. Disc protrusion indenting the theca – left lateral recess at c5/c6
  3. Degenerative cervical disc disease.

In  my opinion, development of the degenerative cervical disc disease results from the cervical spine fractures.

Sensory pain radiates in the direction of the cushioning discs and nerve roots involvement. The pain you feel along your neck, shoulder, arm is probably caused by c4/c5 involvement. The pain you feel specifically in hand is probably caused by the  c5/c6 involvement.

Naproxen can be used to help alleviate degenerative cervical disc disease.  Tens machine can also be used to help with the pain. Your doctor may recommend the use of Baclofen and calcium. I would also recommend you consult with a Physio Therapist who may suggest further treatment and the use of a cervical collar and hot/cold compress treatments.


Dr. Javez Ernesto
Dr. Javez Ernesto

Bleeding from vagina. Is this normal or caused by blood clotting?

Question: Hello. I am suffering from vaginal bleeding. I gave birth about a month and a half ago by C-Section. I had bleeding for about a week afterwards. Then it stopped for about 2 weeks and then it started again daily about 2 weeks ago. Can this be due to blood clotting or is this normal after a c-section? I have uploaded CBC, PT, INR/PTT results for you. Thanks again ahead of time for your answer or help.

Answer: Based on the information you have provided you seem to be suffering from postpartum hemorrhage and from the docs you sent they do indicate some type of blood clotting disorder  raised prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR). This needs to be examined and treated immediately. I recommend you go to an ER or hospital. The following tests need to completed: blood, liver function tests (LFT), urea, creatinine, platelet count, bleeding time (BT), clotting time (CT) prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin (APTT) as well as an USG (ultrasonography) . Administration of IV antibiotic as well as FFP transfusion and blood reserve will probably be required.


Dr. John Claude

I have been having headaches for about 4 to 5 years?

Question: I have been having headaches for about 4 to 5 years. The headaches will last sometimes all day and sometimes 2 to 3 hours. I don’t have any other symptoms when I have these headaches. But a few days ago while having a headache I vomited as well. I take a flexon tablet when I get a headache. What should I do?  And is Flexon good for headaches?

Answer: Hello. I suggest you get an an MRI brain scan done and also get an ophthalmic examination to identify intraocular pressure and fundus examination to rule out papilledema. As far as taking Flexon is concerned, Naproxen can also be a good choice.


Dr. Beverly Lewis

Doctor Beverly Lewis


Can I stop my epilepsy medication? Haven’t had a seizure in over 6 years.

Question: Can I stop my epilepsy medication? I have been diagnosed with epilepsy 8 years ago and been put on Lamictal for awhile and then Epilim. But the meds are making me miserable feeling anger,anxiety and depression. I haven’t had a seizure in over 6 years. Can I stop the meds?

Answer: Hi. I understand that the medication may be affecting you. However you will need to consult with your Doctor before doing any modification whatsoever. You will need to undergo MRI Brain (plain and contrast) with MRA, MRV, MRS and whole spine screening and EEG. If results are normal, the drugs can be tapered and eventually eliminated. Until then I recommend you continue as is.

Dr. Deepak Patel

I want to take the best possible Covid 19 vaccine. Which one is the best?

Question: I want to take the best possible Covid 19 vaccine. Between the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, AstraZeneca and Johnson vaccines. Which one is the best? I am a 54 year old woman with no health problems.

Answer: Hi. There has been a lot of talk about the efficacy of the different vaccines and talk about some folks preferring one to the other because of its efficacy % rate, etc. But I would recommend you take whichever vaccine is offered to you first.  All these vaccines are highly effective against severe illness caused by covid 19 and that is what really counts. Just to give you an idea, when it comes to flu shot vaccines the average efficacy is between 40 to 60%. But all covid 19 vaccines are efficacious 70% plus! And when it comes to severe illness they all range near the 80-95% range. That is really impressive for any kind of vaccine! So getting any one of these vaccines will do what it takes to protect you.


Dr. D. Zluf

Dr. D. Zluf

I am having heartburn and stomach pain. Is it due to GERD or peptic ulcer?

Question: I am a 52 year old woman, suffered from allergies and was prescribed antihistamine, omeprazole sometime ago.  and after about 10 weeks began experiencing heartburn, regurgitation, difficulty in swallowing, and sleep disorder. So I consulted a doctor and I was diagnosed with malaria and acidity. I did an ultrasound and it showed excess gas present in my stomach but no ulcer. I was prescribed Spasmodigestin for 10 days and Rabeprazole for a month. Felt better. I now am feeling more acidic with heartburn and having stomach pain occasionally. Is it due to GERD or peptic ulcer?

Answer: Ulcer in the stomach is not shown as a diagnosis in the ultrasound. Some antibiotics that you are taking can cause side effects with an erosion of the stomach wall. I am not sure whether you are taking medications to reduce the secretion of acid in the stomach. Based on the info you have provided, your stomach burn seems to be mostly antibiotic-induced. If you have heartburn with an acid taste in the mouth after sleeping for few hours, then it is likely due to regurgitation. Consult your Doctor who may recommend you take Omeprazole. It is used to treat certain stomach and esophagus problems (such as acid reflux, ulcers). It works by decreasing the amount of acid your stomach makes. It relieves symptoms such as heartburn, difficulty swallowing, and persistent cough. This medication helps heal acid damage to the stomach and esophagus, helps prevent ulcers, and may help prevent cancer of the esophagus. Omeprazole belongs to a class of drugs known as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).  Drink plenty of fluids. Avoid taking excess coffee or tea and spicy foods. Avoid smoking and drinking alcohol. Take a break of ninety minutes between your dinner and sleep. Do not sleep immediately after taking food. Keep your head end raised by placing pillows between your shoulder blades. Your Doctor may recommend you can take an upper GI (gastrointestinal) endoscopy if the severity persists or if the symptoms reappear after a month to know what is happening.


Dr. Javez Ernesto
Dr. Javez Ernesto

Fooducate App : Product review

Fooducate App Review by Doctor Beverly Lewis

Fooducate claims to empower you to achieve your diet, health, and fitness goals.

Losing weight is a great challenge and for many, the hardest part is changing diet. In this regard, Fooducate has proven to be extremely useful. This app helps by making people conscious of the importance of a healthy and balanced diet. This realization has had a transforming effect and contributed to many people’s productivity and well-being.

One of the cornerstone features of this app is that of monitoring calorie intake and thus providing a means of controlling your day–to–day diet. After using the app myself I found this feature was particularly useful in helping me see my progress and pushing me in the right direction, by making me aware of successes and my failures.

It also provides detailed information on the nutritional aspects and ingredients, which contributed to my understanding of what I was consuming daily and its expected effects. This fact alone had a tremendous effect on the way I approached my diet and my body. It is something I know is of importance and it continues to be at the heart of the problem many people face when changing diets and one of the most impressive features and innovations of this app.

fuducate screen shot

Another aspect of Fooducate is the community, which is always helpful and interesting to interact with. The topics discussed are usually interesting and the answers insightful. It also presented a positive perspective for me, as it opened my eyes to the practical understanding that many people were going through the same challenges, problems, and changes, which helped me feel like a part of this community and get inspired by this common goal. The motivational quotes also helped. The interface of the app also deserves a lot of credit. It was instantly familiar, with its Instagram-like esthetics and design and a joy to interact with.

The recipes and ingredients presented are quite varied and of course healthy. The quantity is just staggering. I never felt compelled to eat the same thing continuously day by day and thanks to the community I was always able to find appropriate substitutes or different ingredients to spice things up. In a rare occurrence, compared to my prior efforts, my healthy diet became a source of joy and experimentation instead of dread and complaints. This leads me to appreciate the experience even more and also become a better chef in the process.

The Diet tips section contributed a lot to my education, where it comes to the importance and effects of specific ingredients. I was also surprised at the amount of specific information it contained for people of different ages and in specific conditions. The tips also pushed me to experimentation with cuisines from all over the world and different substitutes to some of my favorite unhealthy snacks, all of which widened my horizon of taste and have made me a generally better-rounded person, willing to appreciate change and different cultures and civilizations.

Fooducate screen shot



Today great apps are often determined not by the amount of content in it but how they decide to present that content in easily manageable bits that make them useful and above all achieve the aim which they propagate. On the right picture, in a simple display yet effective it gives important information regarding some key features of the app such as health tracker and the daily calorie tracker. If u are like me, who loves cooking but has little time to truly dedicate itself to it, then with food founder you get access to a whole range of food recipes that are not only delicious but they help track down the daily calorie intake so that you are constantly at check. Now I admit is not easy living by measuring the daily calories, every single time, but presumed you are putting yourself in a strict regimental diet for a few months which if anything will do you good physically and mentally then investing in this app would be a prudent choice. The app gives me the feeling it is designed to be one size fits all, which means in the huge jingle of apps promising u miracles, this one is very decent in what it delivers. Ultimately however no app helps you lose weight, it boils down as my hard experience has taught me, losing weight is all about calorie deficit. So if u are struggling to keep calorie count, this app will help u immensely in this regard and lose a few pounds on the go. I noticed also that it made me more aware of what I eat every day and perhaps this is the strongest point this app has to offer. Your life won’t be turned around by apps, but if they manage to create the necessary awareness around your daily calorie intake, then the app has gone a long way for sure!

Diet tips and a friendly community to keep yourself motivated and reminded that you aren’t alone in the process is for sure a quite useful source of motivation that with a proper mindset can take a person a long head forward. The interface of the community, similar to a social network was a nice feature that I found all in all useful but in my view, it isn’t what makes this app shine. But the “Diet Tidbits” were very practical and all in all, I found them useful. The amount of information available is a good guide to optimizing your daily dietary choices and that makes the app a treat.

All in all the fooducate is a solid well build food tracking app with a decent and useful interface, with a fine balance between not too flashy but also not too messy, with excellent food choices and a very robust calorie tracking system that makes this app worth the try.

Doctor Beverly Lewis

Dr. Beverly Lewis

My Food App Pick : Fooducate


Fitbit Sense Smartwatch : Product Review

Fitbit Sense Smartwatch Review by Doctor Javez Ernesto

Are you wondering which is the best smartwatch that will help evaluate your health problems and tell you about the status of your health? Then you are at the right place here is our product review.

The Fitbit Sense Smartwatch is one of the most famous and technologically ambitious smartwatches. Yes, it is more helpful and advanced than the Apple and Samsung watches because the Fitbit Sense Smartwatch has many interesting features as well as FDA approval…

This smartwatch contains all the latest features and functions as compared to Apple and Samsung watches. It is the best health watch with an ECG sensor and blood oxygen reading. it also measures electrodermal activity and your skin temperature. The Apple Watch presents blood oxygen levels, too; however, Fitbit is leading the evolution of
smartwatches as they morph from devices that just track our steps to devices that take an additional holistic check-up on our health.

As I found throughout my Fitbit Sense review, these new options incorporated in the product were designed not to provide you with a way of imminent doom but instead an improved plan of however you’re doing. That’s why the Fitbit Sense is one of the unique and best smartwatches.

Fitbit Sense Smartwatch: Display And Design

Design: The Fitbit Sense Smartwatch is made of high-quality stainless steel, and it is beautifully designed to give you an elegant look. It is small and comfortable to wear with lightweight features providing you with a fantastic look in your hand. You can even wear it both day and night. This smartwatch’s right side has a small touch-sensitive with a solid-state sensor that acts as a button. It has a silicone band strap that straps your wrist, and you feel comfortable while wearing this strap.


Display: The display of this smartwatch is AMOLED. It has a high resolution like apple, and Samsung watches buy Fitbit beats apple and Samsung in health features. The display is bright with excellent colors, and you can easily read every instruction on a sunny day. The screen has three different brightness settings; you can change the brightness according to your requirements. You will love the display of the Fitbit Sense Smartwatch.

Fitbit Sense Smartwatch: Health Feature And Function

Compared to any or all the most effective Fitbits, Apple Watches, and Samsung Galaxy Watches, the Fitbit Sense is the boldest when you consider its new health options. The EDA and skin temperature sensing elements are distinctive to Fitbit and are meant to provide you a far better understanding of how you’re doing. However, it remains to be seen how helpful these metrics are; however, Fitbit deserves some credit to try these new features.

Best Health Features:

● EDA Sensor

You will be shocked to know that this best smartwatch will tell you how stressed you are. It does not work with what you feel, but it will tell you about your stress levels using different health measures. This watch will check your heartbeat, sleep, and activity level. You can check the EDA scan with the health app by measuring your electrodermal activity. The Fitbit sense smartwatch will also evaluate your feelings and give you the option of consulting a guide about the medication.

● Skin Temperature

The Fitbit sense smartwatch monitors your skin temperature to provide you a general sense of your overall temperature. It has a SpO2 sensor, which you can wear while sleeping if you want to measure reading. You must sleep three consecutive nights to obtain baseline results. A higher or lower skin temperature could mean you have any disturbance in your body or face any medical illness. It is also recommended for pregnant women to provide info on pregnancy.

● ECG Sensor

The third smartwatch to receive agency approval for its ECG app (the Apple Watches and the Samsung Galaxy Watches being the other two), the Fitbit Sense, will evaluate your heartbeat to visualize any irregular activity or signs of cardiac arrhythmia.

To use the ECG app, you’ll have to unfortunately g0 through many pages to learn rudimentary cardiology, best to acknowledge you’ll need the help of a doctor to diagnose a problem like an AFib – which will be perceived as an assessment – not a a diagnosis.

To use the ECG app, open the app on the smartwatch, using your index finger, place it on the screen. It will automatically scan your ECG. The app will indicate if you have a ok or irregular heartbeat or if the check was inconclusive. It worked well for me when I tried it, consistent with the app. ECG is the best health app in these smart watches.

● SpO2 Sensor

Checks blood chemical element. The Fitbit Sense, besides the Apple Watches and other Garmin watches, use what’s called a reflective detector. They shine a light-weight into your skin, these sensors explore for reflections. Partly due to reflective sensors square measure being less accurate than transmissive sensors, the Sense, Apple Watch, and many other wearables aren’t FDA-approved; therefore, their readings ought to be questioned and taken with a grain of salt. Several Apple Watch reviewers have reportable wildly-fluctuating tasks, too. The Sense produced pretty correct results in my tests.

It recorded my blood chemical element levels at ninety-six p.c,  and in fact my blood chemical element was  at ninety-eight p.c. Unlike the Apple Watch and numerous Garmin devices, the Fitbit Sense doesn’t allow you to
perform spot checks of your blood chemical element saturation. Instead, it takes a reading when you’re sleeping. It’s most likely higher at this time; therefore, you’re not perpetually checking. Initially, you had to use a selected Spo2 watch face when you were sleeping to induce this reading; however, an update to the Sense’s computer code currently permits you to use any watch face you wish. Fitbit says it’ll add seven new watch faces with SpO2
information by the end of the year.


The Fitbit sense smartwatch is one of the best watches globally, and it has a lot of features and functions related to your health and fitness. If you need a watch to help evaluate your health situation, then you just need this beautifully designed smartwatch. It will take care of your health and wellness. You will love to wear this elegantly designed Fitbit sense smartwatch every day.

Dr. Javez Ernesto

My Smartwatch Pick : Fitbit Sense




Are my home EKG results good? Or is there a problem?

Question: Are my home EKG results good? Or is there a problem? I have very mild mitral valve regurgitation. Before I did the EKG, I just ate and I was very concerned about the chest pain. I have attached my two EKG reports here. Are they normal? They were taken consecutively, 1 minute apart, the one with 106 heart rate was taken first and the second one with 93 heart rate was taken later). I see some broad peak in the second one. I am not sure if it is an error or something else.

Answer: Hello. I have received, read your question and have taken a look at the info you uploaded. The EKG (electrocardiogram) mainly seems to be of a normal heart. There is no obvious sign of ischemic heart disease or any other issues of rhythm and electrical conduction of heart. The peak you are most concerned about is a simply nothing. It is an artifact and is a recording error of the stylus.


Dr. Deepak Patel

I suffer from persistent acne problems?

Question: I suffer from persistent acne problems. I am a male 34 years old and have had acne problems since I was 16 years old. My acne is mostly on my face and a lot is found on my upper back. To the point I am ashamed of it. What can I do to make it go away?

Answer: Hi. I have received and read your question. You are suffering from acne vulgaris but since it is now showing up on your upper back and has become a problem you need to deal with this. Proper hygiene and washing is the first step that needs to be taken.

  1. Use a mild soap and avoid scented, medicated soap.
  2. While washing the face, the skin of the face must not be scrubbed roughly. It should be sponged gently.
  3. Wash your face three or four times a day with plain water – soap is to be used only twice a day.
  4. Avoid exposure to dust, dirt or oily cosmetics.
  5. I would also recommend to avoid fatty foods.
  6. Do not squeeze the acne as it may leave a scar permanently.

As far as treatment is concerned you should consult a dermatologist. Possible medication that will be recommended by your doctor may include:

Doxycycline 100 mg two times a day. Ibuprofen 400 mg two times for five days. Isotretinoin once a day for 15 days. Retino-A (Tretinoin) locally at night.


Dr. Deepak Patel


I have had ovulation induction but no pregnancy?

Question: I am trying to have a baby for 3 years now. I’m 26 years of age and in good health except for a Polycystic Ovarian Disease – pcod –  issue. I had Clomid and hCG injections twice. Both were unsuccessful. My  doctor said egg growth is OK. I have uploaded my hormonal test report and ultrasound . Please help.

Answer: Hi. I have received and read your question. In my opinion the hormone reports submitted are normal and the ultrasound seems fine. But, as there is no detail about the sizes of follicles reached during both cycles of ovulation induction it is difficult to make a comment here. There are some points that need to be clarified: Other hormone levels like serum testosterone, serum estradiol, DHEAS (dehydroepiandrosterone), 17-OHP (hydroxyprogesterone) levels also need to be done. If you have been forming adequate size follicles 222 x 22mm by midcycle then hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) can help you ovulate but if hCG fails at this size then it is likely that your androgenic hormone levels are higher. You should upload the ultrasound pelvis report to assess the size of the ovaries. An anti-mullerian hormone level report is needed for evaluation. Based on the info provided I believe pregnancy is possible however I strongly recommend you consult with a reproductive endocrinologist (fertility doctor). This is your best avenue forward.


Dr. John Claude


My body wants to keep moving to the right?


Answer: Hi. I have received and read your question. In my opinion, your history of marathon running and heavy use has led to a condition of excess Foot Supination/Pronation – an imbalance of the foot. This can be treated by consulting a specialist (sports physical therapist) who will recommend specific exercises. Also you should reevaluate your foot wear with a orthopedic shoe specialist and find a shoe that can correct the problem.


Dr. John Claude

Excessive supination (underpronation) and excessive pronation (overpronation) can cause problems with the body’s alignment and lead to pain in the feet, knees, hips, and back.

  • Too much supination can cause problems, such as pain and soreness.
  • Most people with excessive supination have structural issues in their feet.
  • Ways to treat or prevent excessive supination include wearing proper shoes.

People who pronate excessively roll their foot inward, causing the outer part of the heel to make contact with the ground and the feet to flatten too much.

Those who supinate do not roll their foot inward enough. This puts a strain on the ankle and can cause the ankle to roll outward, which leads to injury.

Excessive supination is less common than excessive pronation.

Causes of supination : The structural problems of the feet causing supination are usually inherited. However, external factors can also play a role in the condition.

Common causes of excessive supination include:Traits that affect the mechanics of the feet and legs are often inherited, such as:

  • leg length (including differences between the length of the legs)
  • width of the foot
  • ankle stability

The shape of the foot’s arch may also increase the risk of supination, with runners with high arches being more prone to supination than other people.Good shoes support the arch and soft tissues of the foot, which help protect the foot from injury. This is especially true when walking on hard and flat surfaces.

The wrong type of shoe — such as rigid or tight shoes — can lead to supination and other foot problems. Also, wearing shoes that are worn out or have no arch support causes supination.

Can I add DHEA and Pregnenolone to improve my hormone levels?

Question: Hello, I suffered a stroke 30 years ago both my adrenal glands were removed and I now rely on 20 mg Hydrocortisone and 0.1 mg fludrocortisone a day Can I add DHEA and Pregnenolone 25/100 mg to improve my hormone levels i.e. Reduce my psa levels

Answer: Hi. I have received and read your question. Based on the information you have provided and considering the medications you are taking, I would not recommend taking DHEA or Pregnenolene. Both have questionable results with insufficient evidence of effectiveness. In addition, they are banned in some countries for certain activities. I hope this answers your question.  Below is some background additional info for you.

Serum levels of the adrenal androgen, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated conjugation product DHEAS, peak in men and women in the 3rd decade and decrease progressively with age. Increasing numbers of middle-aged and older individuals consume over-the-counter preparations of DHEA in the hope that it will retard aging by increasing muscle and bone mass and strength, decreasing fat, and improving immunologic and neurobehavioral functions. To date, however, the benefits and risks of DHEA administration for “anti-aging” purposes have not been defined. Because DHEA can serve as a precursor to testosterone (T) and estrogen, supplemental DHEA use may pose a cancer risk in patients with nascent or occult cancer of the prostate and/or breast.


Dr. Deepak Patel